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  1. Any of several diseases or infections caused by a trypanosome.

Extensive Definition

Trypanosomiasis or trypanosomosis is the name of several diseases in vertebrates caused by parasitic protozoan trypanosomes of the genus Trypanosoma. More than 66 million women, men, and children in 36 countries of sub-Saharan Africa suffer from human African trypanosomiasis which is cause by either Trypanosoma brucei gambiense or Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense. The other human form of trypanosomiasis, called Chagas disease, causes 21,000 deaths per year mainly in Latin America.

Human trypanosomiases

Animal trypanosomiases

  • Nagana, or Animal African trypanosomiasis, also called 'Souma' or 'Soumaya' in Sudan.
  • Surra
  • Mal de caderas (of central South America)
  • Murrina de caderas (of Panama; Derrengadera de caderas)
  • Dourine
  • Cachexial fevers (various)
  • Gambian horse sickness (of central Africa)
  • Baleri (of Sudan)
  • Kaodzera (Rhodesian trypanosomiasis)
  • Tahaga (a disease of camels in Algeria)
  • Galziekte, galzietzke (bilious fever of cattle; gall sickness of South Africa)
  • Peste-boba (of Venezuela; Derrengadera)

Diagnosis & Treatment

Diagnosing African trypanosomiasis requires the documentation of T.brucei in blood smears, lymph node aspirates, or CSF. American trypanosomiasis is currently treated with a variety of antifungal agents, including Benznidazole and Nifurtimox.


Report on Trypanosomes, Thomas, (London, 1905)
Tropical diseases, Sir Patrick Manson, (fifth edition, London, 1914)
Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, C. W. Daniels, (New York, 1914)
The Trypanosomiases, I. Maudlin, P.H. Holmes, M.A. Miles (Wallingford, 2004)

Notes and references

trypanosomiasis in German: Trypanosomiasis
trypanosomiasis in French: Trypanosomiase
trypanosomiasis in Lithuanian: Tripanosomozė
trypanosomiasis in Dutch: Trypanosomiasis
trypanosomiasis in Japanese: トリパノソーマ症
trypanosomiasis in Polish: Trypanosomiaza
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